- run frequent actions by using simple commands
- easily explore your infrastructure and cloud resources inter relations via CLI
- ensure smart defaults & security best practices
- manage resources through robust runnable & scriptable templates (see
- explore, analyse and query your infrastructure offline
- explore, analyse and query your infrastructure through time
I came across this handy Amazon AWS manual for the maximum transfer unit (MTU) configuration for EC2 instances. This is not something one needs every day, but, I’m sure, when I need it, I’ll otherwise be spending hours trying to find it.
The maximum transmission unit (MTU) of a network connection is the size, in bytes, of the largest permissible packet that can be passed over the connection. The larger the MTU of a connection, the more data that can be passed in a single packet. Ethernet packets consist of the frame, or the actual data you are sending, and the network overhead information that surrounds it.
Ethernet frames can come in different formats, and the most common format is the standard Ethernet v2 frame format. It supports 1500 MTU, which is the largest Ethernet packet size supported over most of the Internet. The maximum supported MTU for an instance depends on its instance type. All Amazon EC2 instance types support 1500 MTU, and many current instance sizes support 9001 MTU, or jumbo frames.
The following instances support jumbo frames:
- Compute optimized: C3, C4, CC2
- General purpose: M3, M4, T2
- Accelerated computing: CG1, G2, P2
- Memory optimized: CR1, R3, R4, X1
- Storage optimized: D2, HI1, HS1, I2
As always, Julia Evans has got you covered on the basics of networking and the MTU.
Immutable infrastructure is a very powerful concept that brings stability, efficiency, and fidelity to your applications through automation and the use of successful patterns from programming. The general idea is that you never make changes to running infrastructure. Instead, you ensure that all infrastructure is created through automation, and to make a change, you simply create a new version of the infrastructure, and destroy the old one.
“Immutable Infrastructure with AWS and Ansible” is a, so far, three part article series (part 1, part 2, part 3), that shows how to use Ansible to achieve an immutable infrastructure on the Amazon Web Services cloud solution.
It covers everything starting from the basic setup of the workstation to execute Ansible playbooks and all the way to AWS security (users, roles, security groups), deployment of resources, and auto-scaling.
Yesterday I helped a friend to figure out why he couldn’t connect to his Amazon RDS database inside the Amazon VPC (Virtual Private Cloud). It was the second time someone asked me to help with the Amazon Web Services (AWS), and it was the first time I was actually helpful. Yey!
While I do use quite a few of the Amazon Web Services, I don’t have any experience with the Amazon RDS yet, as I’m managing my own MySQL instances. It was interesting to get my toes wet in the troubleshooting.
Here are a few things I’ve learned in the process.
Lesson #1: Amazon supports two different ways of accessing the RDS service. Make sure you know which one you are using and act accordingly.
If you run an Amazon RDS instance in the VPC, you’ll have to setup your networking and security access properly. This page – Connecting to a DB Instance Running the MySQL Database Engine – will only be useful once everything else is taken care of. It’s not your first and only manual to visit.
Lesson #2 (sort of obvious): Make sure that both your Network ACL and Security Groups allow all the necessary traffic in and out. Double-check the IP addresses in the rules. Make sure you are not using a proxy server, when looking up your external IP address on WhatIsMyIP.com or similar.
Lesson #3: Do not use ICMP traffic (ping and such) as a troubleshooting tool. It looks like Amazon RDS won’t be ping-able even if you allow it in your firewalls. Try with “telnet your-rds-end-point-server your-rds-end-point-port” (example: “telnet 22.214.171.124 3306” or with a real database client, like the command-line MySQL one.
Lesson #4: Make sure your routing is setup properly. Check that the subnet in which your RDS instance resides has the correct routing table attached to it, and that the routing table has the default gateway (0.0.0.0/0) route configured to either the Internet Gateway or to some sort of NAT. Chances are your subnet is only dealing with private IP range and has no way of sending traffic outside.
Lesson #5: When confused, disoriented, and stuck, assume it’s not Amazon’s fault. Keep calm and troubleshoot like any other remote connection issue. Double-check your assumptions.
There’s probably lesson 6 somewhere there, about contacting support or something along those lines. But in this particular case it didn’t get to that. Amazon AWS support is excellent though. I had to deal with those guys twice in the last two-something years, and they were awesome.
I know, I know, this blog is turning into an Amazon marketing blow-horn, but what can I do? Amazon re:Invent 2016 conference turned into an exciting stream of news for the regular Joe, like yours truly.
Like with the other Amazon AWS services, I was eager to try it out. So I grabbed a few images from my Instagram stream, and uploaded them into the Rekognition Console. I don’t think Rekognition actually uses Instagram to learn about the tags and such (but it is possible). Just to make it a bit more difficult for them, I’ve used the generic image names like q1.jpg, q2.jpg, etc.
Here are the results. Firstly, the burger.
This was spot on, with burger, food, and seasoning identified as labels. The confidence for burger and food was almost 99%, which is correct.
Then, the beer can with a laptop in the background.
Can and tin labels are at 98% confidence. Beverage, drink, computer and electronics are at 69%, which is not bad at all.
Then I decided to try something with people. Here goes my son Maxim, in a very grainy, low-light picture.
People, person, human at 99%, which is correct. Portrait and selfie at 58%, which is accurate enough. And then female at 53%, which is not exactly the case. But with him being still a kid, that’s not too terrible.
Let’s see what it thinks of me then.
Human, people, person at 99% – yup. 98% for beard and hair is not bad. But it completely missed out on the duck! :) I guess it returns a limited number of labels, and while the duck is pretty obvious, the size of it, compared to how much of the picture is occupied by my ugly mug, is insignificant.
Overall, these are quite good results. This blog post covers a few other cases, like figuring out the breed of a dog and emotional state of people in the picture, which is even cooler, than my tests.
Pricing-wise, I think the service is quite affordable as well:
$1 USD per 1,000 images is very reasonable. The traditional Free Tier allows for 5,000 images per month. And API calls that support more than 1 image per call, are still counted as a single image.
All I need now is a project where I can apply this awesomeness…
Polly was designed to address many of the more challenging aspects of speech generation. For example, consider the difference in pronunciation of the word “live” in the phrases “I live in Seattle” and “Live from New York.” Polly knows that this pair of homographs are spelled the same but are pronounced quite differently. Or, what about the “St.” Depending on the language and the context, this could mean (and should be pronounced) as either “street” or “saint.” Again, Polly knows what to do here. Polly can also deal with units, fractions, abbreviations, currencies, dates, times, and other speech components in sophisticated, language-specific fashion.
I am not much involved with text to speech these days, but I did experiments in this area a few years ago. Simple text to simple English has been around for a long time. But support for other languages was always limited, and even with English, the voices always sounded very robotic, and often failed to understand the simplest of native language constructs.
I tried Amazon Polly and was blown away by the quality of the synthesis. Here are the English samples of the text from this blog post:
US English, Kendra, female:
British English, Bryan, male:
Welsh English, Geraint, male:
With that, I wanted to see what happens with other languages. The only other language I speak is Russian, so I pasted the Russian category description into the converter, selected the Russian language, and got this:
Russian, Maxim, male:
That is pretty good! Going further, I pasted the content of this blog post, which is a quoted story that somebody else wrote. It has a very informal flow to it and some weird punctuation. Listen to what it turned into:
Russian, Maxim, male:
You can still make out that it’s a robot and not a human, but it’s way better than anything else I’ve heard so far. By far!
So, how affordable is this technology now? The pricing page answer is very simple:
Pay-as-you-go $4.00 per 1 million characters (when outside the free tier).
It also provides some examples of how this pricing converts to real-life scenarios:
I don’t know about you, but my mind is blown…
This is basically a much simplified setup of a few of their services, such as Amazon EC2, Amazon EIP, Amazon AIM, Amazon EBS, Amazon Route 53, and a few others. For those, who don’t want to figure out all the intricacies of the infrastructure setup, just pick a VPC, click a few buttons and be ready to go, whether you want a plain operating system, or an application (like WordPress) already installed.
It’s an interesting move into the lower level web and VPS hosting. I don’t think all the hosting companies will survive this, but for those that will do, the changes are coming, I think.
Back in my college days, I had a professor who frequently used Andrew Tanenbaum‘s quote in the networking class:
Never underestimate the bandwidth of a station wagon full of tapes hurtling down the highway.
Moving large amounts of on-premises data to the cloud as part of a migration effort is still more challenging than it should be! Even with high-end connections, moving petabytes or exabytes of film vaults, financial records, satellite imagery, or scientific data across the Internet can take years or decades. On the business side, adding new networking or better connectivity to data centers that are scheduled to be decommissioned after a migration is expensive and hard to justify.
In order to meet the needs of these customers, we are launching Snowmobile today. This secure data truck stores up to 100 PB of data and can help you to move exabytes to AWS in a matter of weeks (you can get more than one if necessary). Designed to meet the needs of our customers in the financial services, media & entertainment, scientific, and other industries, Snowmobile attaches to your network and appears as a local, NFS-mounted volume. You can use your existing backup and archiving tools to fill it up with data destined for Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) or Amazon Glacier.
Thanks to this VentureBeat page, we even have a picture of the monster:
100 Petabytes on wheels!
I know, I know, it looks like a regular truck with a shipping container on it. But I’m pretty sure it’s VERY different from the inside. With all that storage, networking, power, and cooling needed, it would be awesome to take a pick into this thing.
“S3 static site with SSL and automatic deploys using Travis” is a goldmine of all those simple technologies tied into a single knot for an impressive result. It has a bit of everything:
- Jekyll – simple, blog-aware, static sites engine, for managing content.
- GitHub – for version control of the site’s content and for triggering the deployment chain.
- Travis CI – for testing changes, building and deploying a new version.
- Amazon S3 – simple, cheap, web-enabled storage of static content.
- Amazon CloudFront – simple, cheap, geographically-distributed content delivery network (CDN).
- Amazon Route 53 – simple and cheap DNS hosting and domain management.
- Amazon IAM – identity and access management for the Amazon Web Services (AWS).
- Let’s Encrypt – free SSL/TLS certificate provider.
When put altogether, these bits allow one to have a fast (static content combined with HTTP 2 and top-level networking) and cheap (Jekyll, GitHub, Travis and Let’s Encrypt are free, with the rest of the services costing a few cents here and there) static website, with SSL and HTTP 2.
This is a classic example of how accessible and available is modern technology, if (and only if) you know what you are doing.
Today, while upgrading some of my Ansible roles I’ve hit the problem. Some of the newer roles require Ansible 2.0. My Amazon AMI machine that runs the playbooks was still on version 1.9. EPEL repository doesn’t seem to have the newer Ansible version yet. Gladly, Google brough in this StackOverflow thread, which suggested installing Ansible with pip, not with yum. This helped a lot:
rpm -e ansible pip install ansible