The servers of Telegram, a popular instant messenger, were under a DDoS attack recently. While they were working on the problem, they’ve tweeted a couple of explanations of what’s going on. CNET brings those tweets to our attention, as they explain rather complex things in a very short and simple way.
This is particularly useful when you need to get familiar with a complex VPC setup by someone else, or when you want to review the results of an automated setup.
“Packets-per-second limits in EC2” is an interesting dive into network limits on the Amazon EC2. Even if you aren’t hitting any limits yet, this article provides plenty of useful information, including benchmarking tools and quick reference links for Enhanced Networking.
The conclusion of the article is:
By running these experiments, we determined that each EC2 instance type has a packet-per-second budget. Surprisingly, this budget goes toward the total of incoming and outgoing packets. Even more surprisingly, the same budget gets split between multiple network interfaces, with some additional performance penalty. This last result informs against using multiple network interfaces when tuning the system for higher networking performance.
The maximum budget for m5.metal and m5.24xlarge is 2.2M packets per second. Given that each HTTP transaction takes at least four packets, we can translate this to a maximum of 550k requests per second on the largest m5 instance with Enhanced Networking enabled.
Sometimes I miss the good old days …
Recently, I had an issue with one of the servers, where a bunch of services were attaching to IPv6 ports instead of the IPv4 ones. Rather than editing the configuration of each of these services, I wanted to simply disabled IPv6 on the machine.
In the old good days, things like these were easily done via the sysctl. I surely tried that option too, but it wasn’t enough. Turns out, the proper way these days is to do this via Grub, as per this blog post:
- Vim /etc/default/grub file
- Change: GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX=”ipv6.disable=1 crashkernel=auto rhgb quiet”
- Regenerate and overwrite Grub config with: grub2-mkconfig -o /boot/grub2/grub.cfg
That sounds a bit too excessive. But then again a reboot is also required for the proper disabling of SELinux, so I guess its’ fine.
Fedora Magazine runs a handy article for anyone using work/corporate VPNs from a home computer – “Using the NetworkManager’s DNSMasq plugin“. This is also not the only use for the DNSMasq plugin. It comes in useful when you work local cluster setups for development or testing. Furthermore, pretty much any setup where you need to route DNS queries to different servers, this can either be used out of the box, or provide good ideas as to how to solve the problem.