Exporting messages from Gmail with fetchmail and procmail

One of the projects that I am involved in has a requirement of importing all the historical emails from a number of Gmail accounts into another system.  It’s not the most challenging of tasks, but since I spent a bit of time on it, I figured I should blog it here too, just in case a similar need will arise in the future.

In my particular case, I need two different solutions.  One for exporting all of the messages from all folders of all Gmail accounts in question (Gmail for Work).  And the other is for exporting only the messages from the “Sent Mail” folder, which were sent on specific dates.

The solution that I derived is based on the classic tools for this purpose – fetchmail and procmail.  Fetchmail is awesome at fetching emails using all kinds of protocols.  Procmail is amazing at sorting, filtering, and otherwise processing the email messages.

So, here we go.  First of all, we need to tell fetchmail where to get the messages from.  I didn’t want to create to separate configurations for each of my tasks, so I left only the options common between them in the configuration file, and the rest I will be passing as command line arguments, depending on scenario.

Note that I’ve been running these tests from a dedicated environment, where I only had the root user.  You don’t have to run it as root – it’ll work as any other just fine.  Also, keep in mind that I used “/root/fetchmail-test/” folder for my test runs.  You might need to adjust the paths if you have it any different.

Here’s my fetchmail.rc file, which I used to test a single mailbox.  A new “poll” section will go into this file later, for each mailbox that I’ll need to export.

poll imap.gmail.com proto imap:
  username "someuser@gmail.com" is root here
  password "somepass"
  fetchall
  keep
  ssl

If you are not root, you might need to adjust the second line, replacing “root” with your username. Also, for testing purposes, you can use “fetchlimit 1” instead of “fetchall“.

Now, we need two configuration files for procmail.  The first one is super simple – I’ll use this for simply pushing all downloaded messages into a single giant mbox file.  Here’s the procmail-all.rc:

VERBOSE=0
DEFAULT=/root/fetchmail-test/fetchmail.all.mbox

As you can see, it only defines the verbosity level and the default mailbox.  The second configuration file is a bit more complicated.  I’ll use it for the sent items only.  The sent items folder limit will be done with fetchmail.  But I want to do further is disregard all messages, which were not sent on a specific date.  Here is my procmail-sent.rc:

VERBOSE=0
DEFAULT=/dev/null
:0
* ^Date: .*28 Jul 2016.*|\
  ^Date: .*27 Jul 2016.*
/root/fetchmail-test/fetchmail.sent.mbox

Again, we have the verbosity level and the default mailbox to save messages to.  Since I want to disregard them unless they match a certain condition, I specify /dev/null.   Then, I specify my condition, which is simply a bunch of regular expressions for the Date header.  Usually, Date header is a not very reliable as different MUAs (Mail User Agents) use different formats, time zones, etc.  In this particular case test results seemed consistent (maybe Gmail fixes the header), and I didn’t have any other more reliable criteria to use.

As you can see, I use a very basic condition for date matching. So, if the Date header matches either “28 Jul 2016” or “27 Jul 2016“, the message is saved in the mbox file, rather than being thrown into the default mailbox.

Now, all I need is a way to tie fetchmail and procmail together, as well as provide some additional options.  For that I created the two one-liner shell scripts, just so that I won’t need to figure out the command line arguments if I look at this whole thing six month later.

Here is the check-all.sh script (multi-line for readability):

#!/bin/bash
fetchmail -f fetchmail.rc \
          -r "[Gmail]/All Mail" \
          --mda "procmail /root/fetchmail-test/procmail-all.rc"

and here is the check-sent.sh script (multi-line for readability):

#!/bin/bash
fetchmail -f fetchmail.rc \
          -r "[Gmail]/Sent Mail" \
          --mda "procmail /root/fetchmail-test/procmail-sent.rc"

If you run either one of these scripts, you’ll see the output similar to this:

$ ./check-all.sh 
fetchmail: WARNING: Running as root is discouraged.
410 messages for someuser@gmail.comat imap.gmail.com (folder [Gmail]/All Mail).
reading message someuser@gmail.com@gmail-imap.l.google.com:1 of 410 (446 header octets) (222 body octets) not flushed
reading message someuser@gmail.com@gmail-imap.l.google.com:2 of 410 (869 header octets) (230 body octets) not flushed
reading message someuser@gmail.com@gmail-imap.l.google.com:3 of 410 (865 header octets) (230 body octets) not flushed
...

Here are a few resources that you might find helpful:

Serverlessconf 2016 – New York City: a personal report

Serverlessconf 2016 – New York City: a personal report – is a fascinating read.  Let me get you hooked:

This event left me with the impression (or the confirmation) that there are two paces and speeds at which people are moving.

There is the so called “legacy” pace. This is often characterized by the notion of VMs and virtualization. This market is typically on-prem, owned by VMware and where the majority of workloads (as of today) are running. Very steady.

The second “industry block” is the “new stuff” and this is a truly moving target. #Serverless is yet another model that we are seeing emerging in the last few years. We have moved from Cloud (i.e. IaaS) to opinionated PaaS, to un-opinionated PaaS, to DIY Containers, to CaaS (Containers as a Service) to now #Serverless. There is no way this is going to be the end of it as it’s a frenetic moving target and in every iteration more and more people will be left behind.

This time around was all about the DevOps people being “industry dinosaurs”. So if you are a DevOps persona, know you are legacy already.

Sometimes I feel like I am leaving on a different planet.  All these people are so close, yet so far away …

How to Recover an Unreachable EC2 Linux Instance

volume

Here is a tutorial that will come handy one day, in the moment of panic – How to Recover an Unreachable Linux Instance. It has plenty of screenshots and shows each step in detail.

TL;DR version:

  1. Start a new instance (or pick one from the existing ones).
  2. Stop the broken instance.
  3. Detach the volume from the broken instance.
  4. Attach the volume to the new/existing instance as additional disk.
  5. Troubleshoot and fix the problem.
  6. Detach the volume from the new/existing instance.
  7. Attach the volume to the broken instance.
  8. Start the new instance.
  9. Get rid of the useless new instance, if you didn’t reuse the existing one for the troubleshooting and fixing process.
  10. ???
  11. PROFIT!

SSH multiplexing and Ansible via bastion host

It never ceases to amaze me how even after years and years of working with some technologies I keep finding out about super useful features in those technologies, that could have saved me lots of time if I knew about them earlier.  Today was a day just like that.

I was working on the Ansible setup for a new hosting environment.  One particular thing I wanted to utilize more was a bastion host – a single Linux machine with exposed secure shell (SSH) port, which will be used for managing the configurations of all the servers within the environment.  I sort of done that before, but the solution wasn’t as elegant as I wanted it to be.

So, I came across this article – Running Ansible Through an SSH Bastion Host.  Which, among other things taught me about a feature that I didn’t know nothing about.  Literally.  Haven’t even heard about it.  Multiplexing in OpenSSH:

Multiplexing is the ability to send more than one signal over a single line or connection. With multiplexing, OpenSSH can re-use an existing TCP connection for multiple concurrent SSH sessions rather than creating a new one each time.

This doesn’t sound too useful for when you are working in command line, one server at a time.  Who cares how many TCP connections do you need? It’ll be one, or two, or five.  Ten, if you are really involved.  But by that time you’ll probably be running background processes, and screen or tmux (which are apparently called “terminal multiplexers“).

It’s when you are going deeper into automation, such as in my case with Ansible, when you’ll need OpenSSH multiplexing.  Ansible, being a configuration manager, can run a whole lot of commands one after another.  It can run them on multiple servers in parallel as well.  That’s where reusing the connections can make quite a bit of a difference.  If every command you run connects to the remote server, executes, and then disconnects, you can benefit from not needing to connect and disconnect multiple times (tens or hundreds of times, every playbook run).   Reusing connection for parallel jobs is even better – and that’s a case with bastion host, for example.

Here are a few useful links from that article, just in case the ether eats it one day:

Armed with those, I had my setup running in no time.  The only minor correction I had to do for my case was the SSH configuration for the bastion host.  The example in the article is NOT wrong:

Host 10.10.10.*
  ProxyCommand ssh -W %h:%p bastion.example.com
  IdentityFile ~/.ssh/private_key.pem

Host bastion.example.com
  Hostname bastion.example.com
  User ubuntu
  IdentityFile ~/.ssh/private_key.pem
  ForwardAgent yes
  ControlMaster auto
  ControlPath ~/.ssh/ansible-%r@%h:%p
  ControlPersist 5m

It’s just that in my case, I use hostnames both for the bastion host and the hosts which are managed through it.  So I had to adjust it as so:

Host *.example.com !bastion.example.com
  ProxyCommand ssh -W %h:%p bastion.example.com
  IdentityFile ~/.ssh/private_key.pem

Host bastion.example.com
  Hostname bastion.example.com
  User ubuntu
  IdentityFile ~/.ssh/private_key.pem
  ForwardAgent yes
  ControlMaster auto
  ControlPath ~/.ssh/ansible-%r@%h:%p
  ControlPersist 5m

Notice the two changes:

  1. Switch of the first block from IP addresses to host names, with a mask.
  2. Negation of the bastion host configuration.

The reason for the second change is that if there are multiple Host matches in the configuration file, OpenSSH will combine all options from the matched configurations (something I didn’t find in the ssh_config manual).  Try this example ssh.conf with some real hosts of yours:

Host bastion.example.com
	User someuser

Host *.example.com
	Port 2222

You’ll see the output similar to this:

$ ssh -F ssh.conf bastion.example.com -v
OpenSSH_7.2p2, OpenSSL 1.0.2h-fips  3 May 2016
debug1: Reading configuration data ssh.conf
debug1: ssh.conf line 1: Applying options for bastion.example.com
debug1: ssh.conf line 4: Applying options for *.example.com
debug1: Connecting to bastion.example.com [1.2.3.4] port 2222.
^C

Once you negate the bastion host from the wildcard configuration, everything works as expected.

You might also try using “%r@%h:%p” for the socket to be different for each remote username that you will concurrently connect with, but that’s just nit-picking.

Packer – a tool for creating VM and container images

With the recent explosion in the virtualization and container technologies, one is often left disoriented.  Questions like “should I use virtual machines or containers?”, “which technology should I use”, and “can I migrate from one to another later?” are just some of those that will need answering.

Here is an open source tool that helps to avoid a few of those questions – Packer (by HashiCorp):

Packer is a tool for creating machine and container images for multiple platforms from a single source configuration.

Have a look at the supported platforms:

  • Amazon EC2 (AMI). Both EBS-backed and instance-store AMIs within EC2, optionally distributed to multiple regions.
  • DigitalOcean. Snapshots for DigitalOcean that can be used to start a pre-configured DigitalOcean instance of any size.
  • Docker. Snapshots for Docker that can be used to start a pre-configured Docker instance.
  • Google Compute Engine. Snapshots for Google Compute Engine that can be used to start a pre-configured Google Compute Engine instance.
  • OpenStack. Images for OpenStack that can be used to start pre-configured OpenStack servers.
  • Parallels (PVM). Exported virtual machines for Parallels, including virtual machine metadata such as RAM, CPUs, etc. These virtual machines are portable and can be started on any platform Parallels runs on.
  • QEMU. Images for KVM or Xen that can be used to start pre-configured KVM or Xen instances.
  • VirtualBox (OVF). Exported virtual machines for VirtualBox, including virtual machine metadata such as RAM, CPUs, etc. These virtual machines are portable and can be started on any platform VirtualBox runs on.
  • VMware (VMX). Exported virtual machines for VMware that can be run within any desktop products such as Fusion, Player, or Workstation, as well as server products such as vSphere.

The only question remaining now, it seems, is “why wouldn’t you use it?”. :)

httpoxy – a CGI application vulnerability for PHP, Go, Python and others

httpoxy

httpoxy is a set of vulnerabilities that affect application code running in CGI, or CGI-like environments.

It comes down to a simple namespace conflict:

  • RFC 3875 (CGI) puts the HTTP Proxy header from a request into the environment variables as HTTP_PROXY
  • HTTP_PROXY is a popular environment variable used to configure an outgoing proxy

This leads to a remotely exploitable vulnerability. If you’re running PHP or CGI, you should block the Proxy header now.

10 Favorite Job Interview Questions for Linux System Administrators

As someone who interviews a lot of people (mostly for the web development positions though, not system administration), I’m always looking for more ideas on what to ask the candidates.  Today I came across “10 Favorite Job Interview Questions for Linux System Administrators“, which has a few of bits that I liked.

First of all, this GitHub repository is super awesomeness.  It also links to a few other resources with more questions and ideas.  Not only for sysadmin interviews.

Then, this one is funny, yet somewhat challenging:

2. Name and describe a different Linux/Unix command for each letter of the alphabet. But also, describe how a common flush toilet works.

It also checks that you know the alphabet.

9. Print the content of a file backwards.

“I like broad questions where each person could give a different answer depending on their depth of knowledge. My personal answer is 8 characters not including the filename.” – Marc Merlin, Google.

This one caught me by surprise.  My immediate thought was “tac some_file“, but that’s obviously not enough.  tac only prints the lines in reverse order.  Which is not the same as reversing the file.  Perl to the rescue, but I wonder what’s the most elegant way to do it without the scripting language.

As always, interview questions are not only useful for the interviews.  They are a good measure of your own knowledge gaps and habit pitfalls.  This time was no exception.

Test your backups!

You can read all the books in the world and know all there is to know, but if you don’t follow the wisdom and practice the knowledge, then it’s all useless.  That’s my lesson from yesterday.

The Tao of Backup, which I linked to before, says:

backup testing

So, what happened?  Well, as I was preparing for the Fedora 24 installation, I wanted to backup some of my files, as the partition would be formatted.  I’ve connected an external USB drive with plenty of space and ZIP-archived a few of the vital directories on to it.

That was a very simple backup procedure and I saw the resulting files on the volume.  What else should I do, right?  Wrong!  I should have tested the restore.  I didn’t.

Most of the directories that I backed up were small – /etc, /opt, /root.  But my /home directory was about 20 GBs.  The external USB disk used the FAT-32 file system, which has a 4 GB file size limit.  So only the first 4 GBs of my /home folder were backed up.  Funny enough, those files were mostly browser cache and image thumbnails – stuff that should be ignored from backups.  The main two folders that I wanted – Desktop and .ssh were not part of the backup.  And I only realized that after the partition has been formatted.

So, yeah, I should have tested the backup.

P.S.: Gladly, I do have backups elsewhere, and most of my work is committed to GitHub/BitBucket anyways.

Fedora 24 : the day of 64-bit has come

I’ve been using 64-bit Linux distributions on the servers for a while now, but was reluctant to put one on my laptop.  I’ve tried a couple of times many years ago, and found that there were all sorts of weird issues.

Yesterday, with a little push from my brother, Google, and Slashdot, I’ve decided to give it another go.  64-bit Fedora 24 is now on my laptop and I am carefully exploring it.  So far, so good.

I guess I won’t have to worry about Year 2038 Problem after all.

SugarCRM cache directory – it is NOT a cache directory!

Here is a useful reminder from a few years back – “SugarCRM cache directory – it is NOT a cache directory!“.   Unlike most modern day web applications, which use cache/ folder for temporary files, which are safe to delete, SugarCRM keeps a bunch of stuff in there, which, if disappeared, would leave you in a very uncomfortable and confused stay.

Things have obviously improved over the years, but it’s still far from perfect.  And while we are on the subject of surprising issues with SugarCRM, make sure check my other post about working with encrypted values.  Basically, the summary is: backup, backup, backup!  If you want to sleep well at night, backup SugarCRM’s full file system (files, configurations, temporary files, caches, etc) and its database.  And never ever change anything.