GraphQL is a query language for the API. It’s been used by the Facebook mobile app since 2012. The specification was open sourced in 2015. And now GitHub is getting on board as well. This looks interesting.
I came across this rather strongly opinionated blog post – GitFlow considered harmful, and I have to say that I mostly agree with it.
In our company, we use a similar approach to the Anti-gitflow, but with even more simplicity. This is one particular thing I like so much about git is that each person, team, or company can pick the workflow that suits them best.
Just to give you a little bit of context, we have a rather small development team (under 10 people), but we do a large number of projects. All our projects are web-based, varying from small and simple websites (static HTML), through more complex WordPress sites (multilingual, e-commerce, etc), to business applications like CRMs. Each project is done by several developers at a time and can later on be passed on to other developers, often much later (another iteration after several month). Each developer is working on a number of projects at a time. And we do very fast-paced development, often deploying multiple versions per day. Given the nature of the projects and the development pace, we don’t ever really rollback. Rollback is just another step (version) forward. And we don’t have long and complex roadmaps in terms of which features will be released in which version. It’s more of a constant review of what’s pending, what needs which resources, and what we can do right now. (It’s far from ideal project management, but it somehow works for us. If you think you can do better, send me your CV or LinkedIn profile, and we’ll talk.)
In our case, we do the following:
- We have one eternal branch, and we call it master.
- The master branch is always stable and deployable. Even though we don’t really deploy it directly.
- Nobody is allowed to commit directly to the master branch. Initially it was just an agreed convention, but because people make mistakes, we now have this rule enforced with the technology. Both BitBucket and GitHub support protected branches. BitBucket, in my opinion, does it much better.
- All new features, fixes, and improvements are developed in separate “feature” branches. Most of these are branched off the master. For large chunks of work, we can create a feature branch, and then introduce incremental changes to it via sub-feature branches, branched off the feature one. This allows for easier code reviews – looking at a smaller set of changes, rather than a giant branch when it’s ready to be merged.
- We do code review on everything. The strongly suggested rule is that at least two other developers review the code before it is merged. But sometimes, this is ignored, because either the changes are small and insignificant (CSS tweaks or content typos), or we are really in a hurry (we’ll review the changes later). But whatever the case is, nobody is allowed to merge their own pull requests. That is set in stone. This guarantees that at least one other person looked at the changes before they were merged in.
- We tag new versions only on the master branch.
- We use semantic versioning for our tags.
- We don’t deploy branches. We deploy tags. This helps with preventing untested/unexpected changes sneaking in between the review of the branch and the deployment.
The above process suits us pretty well.
Shields.io provides a large collection of badges that you can use in your project documentation (like README.md over at GitHub or BitBucket), which shows a variety of metrics for the project – latest version, number of downloads, build status, and more. Pretty much anything that you’ve seen used by any project on GitHub is supported (I couldn’t think of a badge that wasn’t).
Now, if only there was a way to insert these things automatically somehow …
GitHub added Open Source license descriptions. This is a tiny, but very useful feature, especially for those people who are not very well versed in the differences between GPL, MIT, BSD, and other licenses. I wish there was a way to have something like this proprietary applications. Maybe then people would pay attention to the end user license agreements (EULAs).
Unfortunately it still counts external contributors as users in the account, which makes it too expensive for my organizations, but it’s good to see them trying.
GitHub blog is “Announcing Open Source Guides“:
we’re launching the Open Source Guides, a collection of resources for individuals, communities, and companies who want to learn how to run and contribute to open source.
Open Source Guides are a series of short, approachable guides to help you participate more effectively in open source, whether it’s:
- Finding users for your project
- Making your first contribution
- Managing large open source communities
- Improving the workflow of your project
These guides aim to reflect the voice of the community and their years of wisdom and practice. We’ve focused on the topics we’ve heard about most, and curated stories from open source contributors across the web.
I think it’s a great idea and I really like the execution too. Most of what I know about Open Source comes from years of participation, and from reading old books, manuals and licenses – not something that is easy to share with people who are just getting their feet wet.
GitHub’s Open Source Guides are very simple, concise and specific. And they cover a variety of subjects, not just the legal or technical side of things, but also communications, support, marketing, etc.
GitHub to MySQL is a handy little app in PHP that pulls labels, milestones and issues from GitHub into your local MySQL database. This is useful for analysis and backup purposes.
There are a few example queries provided that show issues vs. pull requests, average number of days to merge a pull request over the past weeks, average number of pull requests open every day, and total number of issues.
I think this tool can be easily extended to pull other information from GitHub, such as release notes, projects, web hooks. Also, if you are using multiple version control services, such as BitBucket and GitLab, extending this tool can help with merging data from multiple sources and cross-referencing it with the company internal tools (bug trackers, support ticketing systems, CRM, etc).
This is not something I’ll be doing now, but I’m sure the future is not too far away.
GitHub blog introduces Topics – a tagging/labeling mechanism for GitHub repositories, which makes searching by technology, topic, etc so much better.
This is a much welcome feature.
composer-patches is a plugin for Composer which helps with applying patches to the installed dependencies. It supports patches from URLs, local files, and from other dependencies.
I think this is absolutely brilliant!
It’s quite often that one finds bugs and issues in external dependencies. Once the bug (or even the pull request with the fix) is submitted to the vendor, it can take anywhere from a few hours to a few weeks to be resolved and a new version to be released.
If you have a fix for the problem and need it in your project right away, and can’t wait until the vendor releases the new version, your best choice is to fork the dependency, fix the problem, and use your repository instead of the vendor’s package. This works, but it’s messy.
With the patches plugin to composer, you can still use the vendor’s package and just apply a patch with composer, until the new version is available. Clean and simple.
This also helps with testing things and working with different changes by different people, if you want to try things out – no need to choose between multiple repositories. Just select the patches that you want and apply them at the environment you need.
Given that most development work is happening on GitHub these days, this composer plugin is even more useful than what I might think at first. You see, GitHub provides patch and diff URL for each commit – all you need to do is add the extension to the URL. For example, take this recent commit to my dotfiles repository.
So, this gives you a way of applying any commit on GitHub (and other repositories) via composer to any of your dependencies. This is mind blowing!
“S3 static site with SSL and automatic deploys using Travis” is a goldmine of all those simple technologies tied into a single knot for an impressive result. It has a bit of everything:
- Jekyll – simple, blog-aware, static sites engine, for managing content.
- GitHub – for version control of the site’s content and for triggering the deployment chain.
- Travis CI – for testing changes, building and deploying a new version.
- Amazon S3 – simple, cheap, web-enabled storage of static content.
- Amazon CloudFront – simple, cheap, geographically-distributed content delivery network (CDN).
- Amazon Route 53 – simple and cheap DNS hosting and domain management.
- Amazon IAM – identity and access management for the Amazon Web Services (AWS).
- Let’s Encrypt – free SSL/TLS certificate provider.
When put altogether, these bits allow one to have a fast (static content combined with HTTP 2 and top-level networking) and cheap (Jekyll, GitHub, Travis and Let’s Encrypt are free, with the rest of the services costing a few cents here and there) static website, with SSL and HTTP 2.
This is a classic example of how accessible and available is modern technology, if (and only if) you know what you are doing.